Lorestan Province is a region of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains . The number of inhabitants in Lorestan was assessed at 1,716,527 individuals in 2006 . In 2014 it was set in Region 4 .
Lorestan covers a region of 28,392 km2 . The significant urban areas in this region are Khorramabad , Borujerd , Aligoodarz , Dorood , Koohdasht , Azna , Alashtar , Noor Abad , Doh Râh/Dowreh , and Pol-e-Dokhtar .
Topography and atmosphere
The name Lorestan signifies “place where there is the Lurs” . In the more extensive sense it comprises of that piece of western Iran agreeing with the territory of Ilam and reaching out for around 650 km on a northwest to southeast pivot from Kermanshah to Fars , with an expansiveness of 150–180 km . The landscape comprises predominantly of mountains , with various extents , part of the Zagros anchor , running northwest to southeast . The focal range has numerous summits that nearly arrive at the line of unending snow , ascending to 4000 m and more . It nourishes the headwaters of Iran’s most significant waterways ,, for example, the Zayandeh rud , Jarahi , Karun , Diz , Abi , Karkheh . Between the higher reaches lie numerous ripe fields and low bumpy , well-watered regions .
The most astounding purpose of the area is the Oshtorankuh crest at 4,050 m .
The low-lying regions being in the southern most division of the area are roughly 500 m above ocean level . Oak woods covers the external inclines , together with elm , maple , pecan , and almond trees .
Climatically , the region can be separated into three sections : the sloping districts ,, for example, Boroujerd , Doroud , Azna , Nourabad and Alishtar experience cold winters and moderate summers . In the focal district , the spring season starts from mid-February and keeps going till mid May . The township of Khorramabad is in this domain . Anyway , southern regions, for example, Pol-e-Dokhtar and Papi are affected by the warm air flows of Khuzestan , have sweltering summers and generally moderate winters .
The atmosphere is for the most part sub-moist mainland with winter precipitation , a great deal of which falls as day off (Csa) . Since it lies on the westernmost inclines of the Zagros Mountains , yearly precipitation in Lorestan is among the most elevated anyplace in Iran south of the Alborz Mountains . At Khorramabad , the normal yearly precipitation aggregates 530 millimeters (21 inches) of precipitation identical , while up to 1270 millimeters (50 inches) may fall on the most astounding mountains . The months June to September are generally completely dry , however Khorramabad can expect 4 creeps of precipitation equal in December and January .
Temperatures change broadly with the seasons and among day and night . At Khorramabad , summer temperatures normally extend from at least 12 °C (54 °F) to a sweltering limit of 32 °C (90 °F) . In winter , they extend from at least – 2 °C (28 °F) to a cold limit of 8 °C (46 °F) .
Lorestan incorporates eleven districts (shahrestans) : Aligudarz County , Azna County , Borujerd County , Delfan County , Dorud County , Doureh County , Khorramabad County , Kuhdasht County , Selseleh County , Poldokhtar County , and starting at 2013 Rumeshkhan County .
Since the guide at the left , Kuhdasht County has been partitioned into Rumeshkhan County and a littler Kuhdasht County .
The antiquated history of Lorestan is intently interwoven with the remainder of the Ancient Near East . In the third and fourth thousand years BC , transient clans settled down in the rocky zone of the Zagros Mountains . The Kassites , an old people who talked neither an Indo-European nor a Semitic language , started in Lorest�?n . They would control Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire ca . 1531 BC and until ca . 1155 BC .
Luristan was attacked and settled by the Iranian Medes in the second thousand years BC . The Medes consumed the indigenous occupants of the district , basically the Elamites and Kassites , when the zone was vanquished by the Persians in the first thousand years BC .
Little Luristan bronze craftsmanships (generally so spelled in English) of around 1000 to 650 BC arrived at the outside world from the late 1920s and are found in exhibition halls everywhere throughout the world , where they are esteemed for their enthusiastic style , with numerous portrayals of creatures .
Lorestan was effectively coordinated into the Achamenid , Parthian and Sassanian realms . Portions of the district figured out how to remain free during the Arab , Seljuk and Mongol attacks .
As per the Encyclopedia of Islam , the Lurs , beforehand open followers of the Ahl-e-Haqq confidence , worship bread and fire like the Zoroastrians . “Being separated into various clans and areas , they relocate to their mid year pastures as independent groups without by and large order . In 1936 , Reza Shah’s military vanquished them , with much slaughter and starvation , compelling huge numbers of the survivors to settle in towns under landowners .”
In the mid 1930s , when British adventurer Freya Stark visited Luristan , she detailed that not many Europeans had visited the zone before her , halfway because of its remoteness , yet additionally in view of the perils one could hope to experience among uncivilized tribespeople .
Because of its rocky conditions , Lorestan has one of the significant railroads in Iran . The Lorestan rail course is 215 km long , with 15 stations having been built up . Lorestan has 133 railroad burrows . The railroad pursues the streams Dez and Sezar .
Individuals and culture
The Lurs establish some portion of the southwestern part of the Iranian people groups , who are spread over the Iranian level and past , extending from the Hindu Kush to focal Anatolia and from the Caucasus and Central Asia to the Persian Gulf – an area that is here and there named Greater Iran . Their language (called Luri or Lurish language) is firmly identified with Persian , and there are two unmistakable tongues . “Lur-e-Bozourg” (Greater Lur) is spoken by the Bakhtiaris , and “Lur-e-Kuchik” (Lesser Lur) , spoken by the Lurs themselves . Individuals in Borujerd talk in Borujerdi Dialect , a nearby Lori Persian tongue removed from Luri . Northwest of Lorestan Province is overwhelmed by Laki speakers . Educator Richard N. Frye composed that “the Lurs and their vernaculars are firmly identified with the Persians of Fars area , and normally belong toward the southwestern part of the Iranian peoples…” .
The mind greater part of Lurs are Shia Muslims . In Khuzestan , Lur clans are fundamentally moved in the northern piece of the territory , while in Ilam they are essentially in the southern locale .
Before the twentieth century most of Lurs were itinerant herders , with a urban minority dwelling in the city of Khorramabad . There were a few endeavors by the Pahlavi governments to coercively settle the itinerant fragment of the Lur populace . Under Reza Shah , these crusades would in general be fruitless . The last Shah of Iran , Mohammad Reza Pahlavi , utilized less powerful techniques along with financial impetuses , which met with more noteworthy , however not finish, achievement . By the mid-1980s most by far of Lurs had been settled in towns and towns all through the area or had relocated to the major urban focuses .
Various traveling Lur clans keep on existing in the region . Among the settled urban people the expert of ancestral seniors still remains a solid impact , however not as prevailing all things considered among the travelers . As in Bakhtiari Lurs and Kurdish social orders , northern Lur ladies have had a lot more noteworthy opportunities than ladies in other Iranian gatherings .
In the northern piece of Lorestan , once in the past known as Lesser Lorestan (“Lur-e-Kuchak”) , live the Faylis , isolated into the Pishkuh Lurs in the east and Pushtkuh Lurs in the bordering An iraqi area in the west .
Lesser Lorestan kept up its autonomy under a progression of sovereigns of the Khorshidi line , known as Atabegs , from A.D. 1155 to the start of the seventeenth century . Shah Abbas I at that point expelled the last Atabeg , Shah Verdi Khan , and endowed the administration of the territory to Hossein Khan Shamlu , the head of the opponent clan of Shamlu , with the title of Vali in return for that of Atabeg . The relatives of Hossein Khan held the title as governors of the Pushtkuh Lurs , to whom just the division of Feili now applies .
- The southern piece of the region , some time ago known as Greater Lorestan (“Lur-e-Bozorg”) , involves the Bakhtiari area of the territory of Khuzestan and the regions of the Mamasenni and Kuhgilu Lurs , which are in Fars region .
- At one time , Greater Lorestan shaped an autonomous state under the Fazlevieh Atabegs from A.D. 1160 until 1424 . Its capital , Idaj , gets by as hills and destroys at Malamir , sixty miles southeast of the city of Shushtar in Khuzestan .